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Cough - Causes and Complications

Cough Reflex
Cough reflex consists of five main components, ie, cough receptors, afferent nerve fibers, central cough, nervous system and efferent effectors. A cough begins with a stimulus on cough receptor. These receptors are non-myelinated nerve fibers in the form of finely located both inside and outside the thoracic cavity. Located within the thoracic cavity, among others, contained in the larynx, trachea, bronchi and the pleura. Will decrease the number of receptors on the branches of a small bronchus, and a large number of receptors found in the larynx, trachea, carina and bronchus branching region. The receptors are also found even in the ear canal, stomach, hilum, paranasalis sinus, pericardial and diaphragm.
The most important afferents exist in the branch of the vagus, which excitatory flow of the larynx, trachea, bronchus, pleura, stomach, and also stimulate the ear through the Arnold branch of n. Vagus. Trigeminal nerve stimulation of the sinus paranasalis channeling, channeling glosofaringeus nerve stimulation of the pharynx and channel phrenic nerve stimulation of the pericardium and diaphragm.

Causes of Cough
Cough in outline can be caused by excitatory as follows:
Inflammatory stimuli such as mucosal edema with a lot of tracheobronchial secretions.
Mechanical stimuli such as foreign body in airway foreign body such as the respiratory tract, post nasal drip, retention of bronchopulmonary secretions.
Temperature stimuli such as cigarette smoke (an oxidant), heat / cold, gas inhalation.
Psychogenic stimuli.

Some causes of cough
  • Irritant
- Cigarettes
- Smoke
- SO2
- Gas in the workplace
  • Mechanical
- Retention of bronchopulmonary secretions
- Foreign body in respiratory tract
- Post nasal drip
- Aspiration
  • Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
- Chronic Bronchitis
- Asthma
- Emphysema
- Firbrosis cystic
- Bronchiectasis

  • Restrictive Lung Disease
- Pneumoconiosis
- Diseases of collagen
- Granulomatous Disease
  • Infection
- Acute Laryngitis
- Acute Brochitis
- Pneumonia
- Pleurisy
- Pericarditis

  • Tumor
- Laryngeal tumors
- Lung Tumors

  • Psychogenic
  • Other

Complications of Cough
At the time of coughing intrathoracic pressure rises to 300 mmHg. Pressure elevation is required to produce an effective cough, but this can lead to complications in the lungs, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular system and central nervous system.

Pneumomediastinum may arise in the lung, may also occur pneumoperitonium and pneumoretropritonium but this is very rare. Another complication was pneumothorax and emphysema, complications muskuloskletal, broken ribs, ruptured abdominal rectus muscle. Cardiovascular complications may include bradycardia, subconjungtiva vein laceration, nose and anus as well as cardiac arrest.

In the central nervous system can occur cough syncope, due to increased intrathoracic pressure occurs reflex vasodilation of systemic arteries and veins. This leads to decreased cardiac output and sometimes berkibat low arterial pressure resulting in loss of consciousness. Syncope occurred a few seconds after the paroxysmal cough.

Can also occur among other constitutional symptoms of insomnia, fatigue, decreased appetite, vomiting, elevated body temperature and headaches. Another complication is urinary incontinence, hernias and prolapse of the vagina.

Comments :


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