In general, individuals who are stricken with bronchopneumonia caused by a decrease in the body's defense mechanism against the virulence of pathogenic organisms. People who have a normal and healthy body's defense mechanisms against respiratory organs which comprises: glottis and the cough reflex, presence of mucous layer, the movement of cilia that move the bacteria out of the organ, and local humoral secretion.
Incidence of bronchopneumonia caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, mycobacteria, mycoplasma, and rickettsial. , among others:
- Bacteria: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, H. Influenzae, Klebsiella.
- Virus: Legionella pneumoniae
- Fungi: Aspergillus species, Candida albicans
- Aspiration of food, oropharyngeal secretions or gastric contents into the lungs
- Pulmonary congestion occurs because the old one.
Another cause of pneumonia is caused by the normal flora that occurs in patients whose durability is compromised, or there is aspiration of normal flora present in the mouth and because of the cranii pneumocystis, mycoplasma.
Bronchopneumonia is a secondary infection that usually causes bronchopneumonia caused by viruses that enter the respiratory tract, causing inflammation and alveolar broncus. Inflammation is characterized by accumulation of bronchial secretions, causing fever, productive cough, positive Ronchi and nausea. When the spread of germs reach the alveoli so the complications that occur are the alveoli collapse, fibrosis, emphysema, and atelectasis.
Collapsed alveoli will result in a narrowing of the airways, shortness of breath, and breath Ronchi. Fibrosis can cause decreased lung function and decreased surfactant production as a lubricant function to moisturize fleura cavity. Emphysema (accumulation of fluid or pus in the lung cavity) is the follow-up from surgery. Atelectasis resulting in an increase in respiratory rate, hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, the client happened cyanosis, dyspnea and fatigue which will result in respiratory failure. Pathophysiology can be described briefly in the process scheme.
Usually preceded by upper respiratory tract infection. This disease usually begins suddenly, rising temperature 39-40°C with chills, shortness of breath and rapid, coughs that are non productive "breath sounds" when percussion dim lung examination, breath sounds during auscultation Ronchi smooth wet and loud.
Cough that may be severe respiratory insufficiency begins to occur with upper tract infections, dry cough, headache, muscle pain, anorexia and difficulty swallowing.
To be able to establish nursing diagnoses can be used to:
1. Laboratory examination
• Blood tests2. Radiological examination
• Examination of sputum
• Blood gas analysis
• Blood cultures
• Samples of blood, sputum, and urine
• Rontgenogram ThoraxManagement of Bronchopneumonia
• Laryngoscopy / bronchoscopy
Chemotherapy for mycoplasma pneumonia, may be given erythromycin 4 x 500 mg daily or Tetracycline 3-4 mg a day.
These drugs ease and speed healing, especially in severe cases. Drugs inhibiting the synthesis of SNA (Sintosin Antapinosin and Indoksi Urudin) and interferon inducer such as polinosimle, poliudikocid.
Symptomatic treatment such as:
- Breaks, generally the patient does not need to be treated, get enough rest at home.
- Symptomatic of a cough.
- A productive cough should not suppressed with antitussive
- If there is airway obstruction, and mucus and there is febrile, given broncodilator.
- Oxygen administration generally is not required, except for severe cases. The best antibiotic is an antibiotic corresponding to the causes that have a narrow spectrum.
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