Definition | Treatment | Management of Disease | Diagnosis | Symptoms | Etiology | Pathophysiology | Procedure

 

Lung Cancer

Most lung cancers originate from cells in the lungs, but lung cancer can also originate from cancer in other body parts that spread to the lungs.

Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women.
Lung cancer is also the leading cause of cancer deaths.
Lung cancer definition, Lung cancer prognosis, symptoms lung cancer, cancer symptoms, symptoms of cancer, small cell cancer, lung cancer smoking, lung cancer treatment, lung cancer survival, lung cancer pain
Types of Lung Cancer

More than 90% of lung cancers originated from the bronchi (large airways into the lungs), cancer is called carcinoma bronchogenic, which consists of:
Squamous cell carcinoma
Small cell carcinoma or squamous cell wheat
Large cell carcinoma

Adenocarcinoma.

Alveolar cell carcinoma derived from air pockets (alveoli) in the lungs. This cancer can be a single growth, but often strike more than one area in the lung.

Lung tumors are less common are:
Adenoma (can be malignant or benign)
Condromatous hamartoma (benign)
Sarcoma (malignant)

Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymph system, which can be derived from the lung or is spread from another organ.
Many cancers that originate from other places to spread to the lungs. This cancer usually comes from the breast, colon, prostate, kidney, thyroid, stomach, cervix, rectum, testicles, bones and skin.

Causes of Lung Cancer
Smoking is a major cause of about 90% of cases of lung cancer in men and about 70% in women.
The more cigarettes smoked, the greater the risk for lung cancer.

Only a small proportion of lung cancer (about 10% -15% in men and 5% in women) caused by or inhaled substances encountered at work.
Working with asbestos, radiation, arsenic, chromate, nickel, chloromethyl ethers, mustard gas and coke oven emissions can cause lung cancer, although usually only occurs in workers who also smoked.

Role air pollution as a cause of lung cancer is still unclear.
Some cases occur because of exposure by radon gas in the household.

Sometimes, lung cancer (particularly adenocarcinoma and alveolar cell carcinoma) occurred in people who already have lung scarring due to other lung diseases, such as tuberculosis and fibrosis.

Large Cell Carcinoma, Small Cell Carcinoma

Smoking is a major cause of about 90% of cases of lung cancer in men and about 70% of cases in women. The more cigarettes smoked, the greater the risk for lung cancer.

Only a small proportion of lung cancer (about 10% -15% in men and 5% in women) caused by or inhaled substances encountered at work. Working with asbestos, radiation, arsenic, chromate, nickel, chloromethyl ethers, mustard gas and coke oven emissions can cause lung cancer, although usually only occurs in workers who also smoked.

The role of air pollution as a cause of lung cancer is still unclear.
Some cases occur because of exposure by radon gas in the household.

Sometimes, lung cancer (particularly adenocarcinoma and alveolar cell carcinoma) occurred in people who already have lung scarring caused by other lung diseases, such as tuberculosis and fibrosis.


Lung Cancer Symptoms
Symptoms of lung cancer depends on the type, location and how its spread.

Usually the main symptom is a persistent cough.
Chronic bronchitis patients who suffer from lung cancer is often noticed that her cough is getting worse.

Sputum may contain blood.
If the cancer grows into the underlying blood vessels, can cause severe bleeding.

Cancer can cause wheezing sound due to the narrowing of the airways in or around the growth of cancer.
Bronchial obstruction may lead to the collapse of the lungs which is a ramification of bronchus, the condition is called atelectasis
Another result is pneumonia with symptoms such as cough, fever, chest and shortness of pain breath.

If the tumor grows into the chest wall, can cause persistent chest pain.

Symptoms that occur later are loss of appetite, weight loss and weakness.
Lung cancer often leads to accumulation of fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion), so that patients experiencing shortness of breath.
If the cancer spreads in the lungs, may develop severe shortness of breath, low blood oxygen levels and heart failure.

Cancer can grow into certain nerves in the neck, causing the occurrence of Horner syndrome, which consists of:
- Eyelid closure
- Small pupils
- Sunken eyes
- Reduced perspiration on one side of the face.

Cancer in the top of the lungs can grow into the nerves to the arm so that the arm pain, numbness and weakness. Damage can also occur in the nerve cords so that people with a hoarse voice.

Cancer can grow directly into the esophagus, or growing near the throat and squeezed, resulting in impaired swallowing. Sometimes abnormal tract formed (fistula) between the esophagus and bronchi, causing severe coughing during swallowing process takes place, because food and liquid into the lungs.

Lung cancer may grow into the heart and causes:
- Abnormal heart rhythm
- Enlarged heart
- Accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sack.
Cancer also can grow around the superior vena cava. This causes blockage of venous blood flowing back upwards, ie into other veins of the upper body:
- Vein in the chest wall will be enlarged
- Face, neck and upper chest wall (including breast) will swell up and appear purple.
This situation also causes shortness of breath, headache, visual disturbances, dizziness and drowsiness. The symptoms are usually worse if the patient bend forward or lie down.

Lung cancer can also spread through the bloodstream to the liver, brain, adrenal glands and bone. This can happen at an early stage, especially in small cell carcinoma.
Symptoms of liver failure, confusion, seizures and bone pain; that could arise before the occurrence of various disorders of the lungs, making early diagnosis difficult to enforce.

Some lung cancer cause effects at a distance from the lungs, such as metabolic disorders, nerve disorders and muscle disorders (paraneoplastic syndrome).
This syndrome is not related to the size and location of the cancer and does not necessarily indicate that the cancer has spread beyond the chest; syndrome is caused by material released by cancer.
The symptoms can be an early marker of cancer or an early indication that the cancer had returned, after such treatment.
One example of the paraneoplastic syndrome is the Eaton-Lambert syndrome, characterized by muscle weakness incredible. Another example is muscle weakness and pain due to inflammation (polymyositis), which may be accompanied by inflammation of the skin (dermatomyositis).

Some lung cancer or hormone releasing hormone-like material, resulting in high levels of hormones that.
Small cell carcinoma producing corticotropin (causing Cushing's syndrome) or antidiuretic hormone (causing fluid retention and low sodium levels in the blood).
Formation of excessive hormone can also cause carcinoid syndrome, namely in the form of redness, wheezing breath sounds, diarrhea and heart valve abnormalities.
Squamous cell carcinoma releasing hormone-like material that causes very high blood calcium levels.

Other hormonal syndromes associated with lung cancer are:
- Breast enlargement in men (gynecomastia)
- Excess thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism)
- Changes in the skin (the skin in the armpit become darker).
Lung cancer can also cause changes in the form of fingers and finger jkaki and changes at the end of long bones, which can be seen on x-rays.

Lung Cancer Diagnosis
If someone (especially smokers) have a cough that persists or worsens or symptoms of other lung, then there is the possibility of lung cancer.
Sometimes the first hint of a shadow found on chest x-ray of someone who showed no symptoms. Chest X-rays can find most of lung tumors, although not all the shadows that look is a cancer.

Usually performed microscopic examination of tissue samples, which are sometimes derived from patients with sputum (sputum cytology). To obtain the necessary network, performed bronchoscopy.

CT scans can show a small shadow that is not visible on chest x-rays and may reveal enlarged lymph nodes.
To find the spread to the liver, adrenal gland or brain, a CT scan of the abdomen and brain.

Spread to the bone can be seen through skening bone. Bone marrow biopsy is sometimes done, because of small cell carcinoma tends to spread to the bone marrow

Classification (stage) of cancer based on:
- Tumor size
- Spread to lymph nodes nearby
- Spread to other organs.
This stage is used to determine the type of treatment will be performed and the prediction of disease in patients.

Lung Cancer Treatment

Lung Cancer Prevention


Tags : Lung cancer definition, Lung cancer prognosis, symptoms lung cancer, cancer symptoms, symptoms of cancer, small cell cancer, lung cancer smoking, lung cancer treatment, lung cancer survival, lung cancer pain

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